[Photograph by Fosco Maraini, from his book, Hekura, The Diving Girl's Island, of a Ama going out to sea on boat.]
And all the boards did shrink;
Water, water, every where,
Nor any drop to drink.
Conventional archeology is still claiming that humans did not exist in America later 13,000 years ago, but there is now evidence that suggest that humans were living in American much earlier than this, as we can see from the following web-sites. -
40,000 year old footprints found in Mexico
New Evidence Puts humans In North America 50,000 Years Ago
ScienceDaily (Nov. 18, 2004)
A human habitation site in Brazil, dated 48-32,000 BP
Evidence that the Polynesians travelled to Peru and took the sweet potato to the Pacific islands long before the Europeans.
For an alternative view of history from a African point of view, and the contact between Africa and America before Columbus, go to. -
There is a great mystery about the Baobab tree. It seems it is a native of Madagascar which has six species there is another species in Africa which may have been introduced by humans, and bizarrely there is another species in Australia.
Now it seems that the Boabab tree is very important for humans living in a hot climate, as it is a continuous source of food and water. People can bore a hole into the baobab tree trunk, take out the soft, wet fibres and squeeze water out of them. The hollowed out tree trunk then collects water which humans can continue to use. Sometimes the centre of the tree dies naturally and a useable water reservoir is formed. Baobab trees are known to store up to 1000 gallons of drinkable water. Not only that the Baobab tree’s leaves and fruit are both eatable. For this reason it is known as the Tree Of Life and the native people of Madagascar call it the "mother of the forest". So clearly it is a good idea to grow a tree like this in a place like Australia where there is a shortage of water.
The problem is that how did the Baobab tree get from Africa or Madagascar to Australia? To explain this there are three theories.
1 Baobab’s dropped their seeds in the ocean in Africa and the wind and currents took them to Australia where they took root and grew. Now, it is known that this happens with Coconuts but they are a species of tree that can grow on a beach and is not affected by salt water. Baobab trees do not grow on the beach but grow inland, it is true they might drop their seeds in a river which would take them to the ocean, but even if they managed to travel all the way to Australia, and was washed up on an Australian beach, they are very unlikely to geminate and grow on a beach, in the way Coconut trees can do. To get around this, it has been suggested that once these seeds were washed up on an Australian beach birds ate it and the seeds were later dropped by the birds inland. The only problem with this is that birds do not normally disperse Baobab seeds. The only animals seen to eat Baobab seeds are Lemurs, monkeys, apes and humans. Also we don’t know of any other tree or plant that has travelled all the way from Africa to Australia in this manner. So the whole speculation is very unlikely.
2 The second theory is that early humans took Baobab seeds from Africa all away along the coast to Australia. Now it is unlikely that any person would carry baobab seeds with them on foot, in a journey of about 8,000 miles, along the coast and only grow them when they reach Australia. They would surely grow these seeds along the way. As it is very unlikely that early people travelled all the way from Africa to Australia in one generation. It could of taken hundreds or even thousands of years, and in this time the Baobab seed would have died. To be fair, there are Baobab trees in India and Vietnam, but they are not very numerous and haven’t been established in the same way they have in Australia, and are the same as the African species. For this reason it is assumed that they are more recent and probably Arab traders planted these trees. So the Baobab trees in India and Vietnam are not as old as they are in Australia, which are so ancient that they are now a separate species from the African Baobab. This suggests it is unlikely that early people from Africa planted them along the route from Africa to Australia.
3 The third theory is that human seafarers took Baobab seeds from Africa and travelled all the way to Australia by boat and planted them in Australia. The problem with this theory is that this must of happened thousands of years ago, because the Baobab tree is very slow growing and can live for a thousand years or more. Also as previously mentioned, the Baobab tree is well established in the North West of Australia and the Australian species is now a separate species to the African species. In other words, it has lived so long in Australia that it has had time to adapt to Australian conditions. So it couldn’t have arrive in Australia recently and would have probably got there 50,000 years ago when the first humans arrived in Australia. Which suggests that human beings could have been travelling the oceans as early as 50,000 years ago.
Boabab seeds make the perfect food for ocean travel. They keep for a very long time without going mouldy, and they are very rich in Vitamin C, and as we know Scurvy caused by vitamin C deficiency was the big problem for European sailors when first began to sail the oceans. So it makes sense for any experience early sailors to take Boabab seeds with them on a journey from Africa to Australia and if they have any seeds left over after the voyage, to plant them in the new land. Or even to just throw them away where they would germinate on the ground. So the existence of the Boabob tree in Australia does point to very early ocean voyages by human beings.
[Photograph by Fosco Maraini, from his book, Hekura, The Diving Girl's Island, of a Ama on boat preparing to dive.]
Latest research in the Philippines, have found a human bone, 67,000 years old.
Early humans followed the coast.
African coins found in Australia.